the Research Institute of Human Morphology

Clinical morphology

I.V. Mayev, O.V. Zayratyants, P.R. Movtaeva, G.O. Zayratyants, A.M. Tokmakov
Structural variants of distal esophageal mucosa and gastric cardiac mucosa: what is considered pathology?


The purpose of research was the study of the structural variants of distal esophageal mucosa and gastric
cardiac mucosa using autopsy samples. We studied 1127 early autopsies collected within 6-8 hours after
death in order to minimize autolysis from persons who died from cardiovascular diseases in hospitals (mean
age 61,3±7,2 years). Patients with a history of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and other diseases of the
digestive system were excluded from the study. The mucosa of the 4 walls of esophagus and stomach was
examined within 10 cm above and below the esophageal-gastric junction (EGJ) using stepped histological
sections. Colocalization of Z-line and EGJ (plus minus 1 cm due to irregular Z-line) was revealed in 315
cases (28%), Z-line was higher than EGJ, at height varying from some millimeters up to 6 cm in 806 cases
(71, 5%) and Z-line was below EGJ by 2 cm in gastric cardia in 6 cases (0, 5%), all histologically diagnosed
as chronic atrophic pan-gastritis. The mucosa of cardiac type (MCT) was absent in 14 cases (1,2%), in 6 of
these it at Z-line in gastric cardia and in 8 cases, at the level of EGJ plus minus 1 cm. MCT was revealed
in 1113 cases (98,8%), from these its upper level was at height varying from some millimeters up to 6 cm
above EGJ in 806 cases (71,5%), at the level of EGJ plus minus 1 cm in 307 cases (27,3%), and the lower
bound of all cases in 1113 was below EGJ plus minus 1 cm in the gastric cardia for up to 1.5 cm. The frequency of MCT detection and its length significantly (p <0.05) increased with age, prevailing after 60 years
in men, but not in women, in whom the frequency of SOCT, exceeding 1 cm in the area of PH, was 3.1 times
lower.prevailing after 60 years in men, but not in women, in whom the frequency of MCT, exceeding 1 cm
in the area of EGJ, was 3,1 times lower. Foci of intestinal metaplasia were found within esophageal MCT
in 48 observations (4.3%) and in 11 (1%), in the region of EGJ and gastric cardia against the background
of MCT or atrophic altered fundus mucosa (MFT). It was concluded that MCT in EGJ (plus minus 1 cm
due to irregular Z-line) should be regarded as normal, wherein the most part of gastric cardia is lined with
MFT. Lack of MCT and the shift of the Z-line in gastric cardia apparently are the abnormalities due to the
effect of hypo-acid state (in atrophic gastritis). Localization of MCT proximal to 1 cm from PHL is a common
pathological process, the frequency of which increases with age developing in response to GER. The
intestinal metaplasia of esophagus, EGJ and gastric cardia are certainly pathological processes, but different
in their essence and prognosis.
Key words: distal esophageal mucosa, gastric cardiac mucosa, structural variants, autopsy

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-4-12
УДК: 616.091

Experimental morphology

D.Sh. Dzhalilova, N.A. Zolotova,M.A. Polyakova, M.E. Diatroptov, M.T. Dobrynina, O.V. Makarova
Morphological features of the inflammatory process and subpopulation pattern of peripheral blood lymphocytes during chronic colitis in mice exhibiting different responses to hypoxia


by hypoxic exposure, is intercinnected with the inflammatory pathway NF-kB. There are individual
genetically determined differences in both the body’s resistance to oxygen deficiency and its susceptibility to
the development of inflammation. However, there are no data in the literature on the features of the inflammatory
process in mice with different resistance to hypoxia.
The purpose of the study was to characterize the features of the inflammatory process and the subpopulation
composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes in chronic dextran sulfate-induced colitis in C57Bl / 6 mice
with different resistance to hypoxia.
The resistance of mice to hypoxia was determined in a pressure chamber by the gasping time at the “height”
of 10,000 m. Chronic colitis was modeled using 1% sodium dextran sulfate.
It was shown that low resistant ones were characterized by greater death rate, more pronounced clinical
manifestations of colitis, and higher prevalence of inflammatory infiltrate in the proximal colon compared
with mice that are highly resistant to hypoxia. In mice with low hypoxia resistance, a decrease in the number
of all subpopulations of T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was observed, which indicates the development
of secondary immunodeficiency, as well as a smaller number of immunosuppressive T-regulatory cells.
It was concluded that the differences in the course of chronic colitis were revealed in animals differing in
resistance to hypoxia: in mice with low resistance to hypoxia, chronic colitis is more severe and changes in
the subpopulation composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes are more pronounced.
Key words: hypoxia, mice, resistance to hypoxia, chronic colitis, inflammation, lymphocyte subpopulations

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-13-20
УДК: 59.084, 57: 571.27

S.P. Mozoleva, A.P. Nadeev, S.V. Pozdnyakova, L.Yu. Kostina
Electron-microscopic study of Kupffer cells and morphological changes in liver for intrauterine candida albicans infection in newborn mice of opposite lines CBA and C57BL/6


The aim of the study was to study the ultrastructure of Kupffer cells and the structural changes in the liver
of newborn mice of two opposite lines CBA and C57BI/6 after intrauterine Candida infection.
Newborn CBA and C57B1/6 mice were divided into 4 groups, 10 animals in each: group1 CBA and group
2 C57B1/6, mice after intrauterine Candida infection; group 3 SBA and group4 С57В1/6, control animals.
In the liver of newborn mice of both lines with intrauterine Candida infection, severe destructive changes
were observed, more extensive in C57B1/ 6 mice. The process of reparative regeneration of liver parenchyma
in C57Bl/6 mice infected in utero with Candida albicans, was less pronounced than in CBA mice and in
control groups. In Kupffer cells in C57Bl/6 mice, in utero infected with C. albicans, a marked decrease in
the protein-synthetic cell function was revealed. In CBA mice energy functions of the Kupffer cell was also
noted. Intrauterine Candida infection and destructive changes in the liver parenchyma caused an increase in
vacuoles of Kupffer cells due to phagosomes with C. albicans, and autophagosomes were more prononuced
in C57B1/6 mice.
Key words: Kupffer cells, newborn CBA and C57Bl/6 mice, liver, intrauterine Candida infection

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-21-27
УДК 616.36.018.74 – 091.8: 618.33 – 002 828] – 092. 9

N.B. Sereznikova, L.S. Pogodina, A.V. Tvorogova, P.P. Zak, A.E. Dontsov
Study of the mitochondrial activity of the retinal igment epithelium cells at low-dose led irradiation


By fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometry it is shown that low-dose LED irradiation (0.2-3.5 J /
cm2, 12 min) of retinal pigment epithelium cells leads to increase in their mitochondrial membrane potential
by 16% – 33% with blue light (λ 450 nm), and more than twice – with red light (λ630 nm).
Key words: retinal pigment epithelium, mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase, photobiomodulation, blue light

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-28-33
УДК: 614.5:612.014.4:644.36:577.344:576.32


I.A. Shurygina, M.G. Shurygin
Method of decalcination of bone tissue


The original method of preparation of bone tissue for morphological investigation is presented in the article.
The method ensures the preservation of the histological structures of the bone and surrounding tissues,
the preservation of antigenic epitopes, and also allows reducing labor intensity and shortening the time of
preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows obtaining high quality preparations suitable for
routine histological examination, as well as for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies.
Key words: decalcification, bone tissue, immunohistochemical studies, immunofluorescence studies

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-34-37
УДК 611.018.4:612.08


T.B. Bukharova, A.V. Vasiliev, E.V. Galitsyna, R.N. Magomedov, V.S. Kuznetsova, O.V. Makhnach, O.A. Zorina, D.V. Goldshtein
Morphometric criteria of periodont tissue regeneration


The results of experimental studies of periodontal regeneration using histological and morphometric analysis
as the main evidence of regeneration are considered. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the
results in different studies are discussed. It is concluded that mesenchymal stem cells of various origin can
have a beneficial effect on periodontal regeneration. For successful regenerative therapy, it is necessary to
specify the optimal combination of progenitor cells, signal molecules and scaffolds and to determine the
temporal and spatial sequence of their application.
Key words: regeneration, bone, morphometry, periodontium, MSC

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-38-42
УДК: 616-003.93: 576.54

A.A.Epishkina, S.S.Kuznetsov
Histologic differential diagnosis for philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm: problem statement


The review considers current perspectives on differential diagnosis for Ph-negative myeloproliferative
neoplasm. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases are characterized either by a long course with regular transformation
into a disease indistinguishable from acute leukemia, or undergo dysplastic changes that lead
to ineffective hematopoiesis, and in some cases, to bone marrow replacement with fibrous tissue, which
makes the prognosis for this nosology not always favorable. This group of diseases is featured by a variety
of clinical manifestations, especially on the onset of the disease, which creates difficulties on differential
diagnosing. The search for additional criteria for the diagnosis of Ph-negative myeloproliferative diseases
is currently an urgent problem of histopathological examination in hematology.
Key words: oncohematology, myeloproliferative disease, differential diagnosis

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-43-49
УДК: 616.155.191-021.3

I.M. Bogdanova, T.V. Fokina, I.I. Stepanova, M.N. Boltovskaya, A.P. Milovanov
The role of the endometrial decidualization in the establishment and development of pregnancy


During female reproductive period, uterine endometrium undergoes cyclical postovulatory morphofunctional
changes induced by increased progesterone level. The key event in the occurrence and development
of pregnancy is decidualization, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into specialized secretory
decidual cells. Morphological transformation of stromal cells is accompanied by functional reprogramming,
that is, production of biologically active molecules including cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides.
The molecular mechanisms underlying onset and maintenance of decidualization are described in the review,
the functional role of decidual cells in the most important processes determining the success of pregnancy
is analyzed, such as implantation, cytotrophoblastic invasion, ensuring the immune tolerance of the mother
to the semi-allogenic fetus and resistance to infection and oxidative stress.
Key words: endometrium, decidualization, decidual cells, immune cells

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-50-60
УДК: 618.2, 576.5

A.N. Kopylov, P.L. Gorelikov, A.I. Alekseeva
Stem cells of glioblastoma


The review describes the immunophenotypic properties of the stem cells of glioblastoma and their role in
tumor growth. Glioblastoma is a heterogeneous tumor which regions differ in proliferative activity, features
of angiogenesis and secondary changes caused by inconsistent microenvironment. Stem cells of glioblastoma
may vary in phenotype and metabolism depending on their regional location, that ensures their resistance
to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and contributes to the invasive growth of the tumor. Elimination of stem
cells of glioblastoma may be a promising method for the treatment of glioblastoma. Therefore, a search for
markers of stem cells of glioblastoma is conducted in order to develop targeted therapy.
Key words: glioblastoma, stem cells of glioblastoma, microenviroment

DOI: 10.31088/2226-5988-2018-28-4-61-67


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